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feature jean de jullienne
Jullienne the collector viewed contemporary art of the 18th century as an organic offspring from tradition. This can clearly be sensed from the way in which he integrated recently created work into his collection, carefully creating visual contexts for them. An album with watercolours in the Morgan Library in New York gives us a striking impression of Jullienne’s picture hang, and also shows us how Watteau’s works were shown. A good example is the 2.ême Cabinet de Mr, Côté en Face de l’Entrée (Fig. 5). In the centre is a painting then regarded to be by Rubens (1577–1640); below, two small works by Philip Wouwermans (1619–68) frame a small self-portrait by Watteau. In this way, Watteau was embedded into the Flemish tradition. On the same wall with Rubens and Wouwermans, he was literally rubbing shoulders with the two most prestigious names in Netherlandish painting at the time. Around the figure of Watteau, the great tradition of Flemish painting evolved. The importance of that statement in the context of Jullienne’s collection is clear. This central group was framed by two small pastels by Boucher, bringing in the other great name of French early 18th-century painting (who had incidentally been one of the major engravers for the Recueil). The two framing columns of the display related two biblical scenes by Boucher to Italian painting – as exemplified in portraits by Annibale Carracci (1560– 1609), and landscapes with figures by Paul Brill (1554–1626) by the Carracci. In contrast to Watteau, Boucher had made the required trip to Italy as a young artist and could thus be linked to the great Italian tradition. In the shadow of Rubens and the Carracci, new French painting evolved.
Venus Disarming Amor by Watteau (c. 1715–17; Fig. 7), today in Chantilly, was shown in the Cabinet avant la Gallerie (Fig. 6). The painting is typical of Jullienne’s interest in the creative process – in drawings, oil sketches and works demonstrating influence and traditions. As a sketch, the work would not be included in the Recueil, but for Jullienne it was of special interest. On the wall in the same
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6 5 Catalogue des Tableaux de M. de
Jullienne, c. 1756 Album containing 144 leaves, bound in goatskin and tooled in gold, 20.2326.8cm Pierpont Morgan Library, New York
6 Catalogue des Tableaux de M. de
Jullienne, c. 1756 Album containing 144 leaves, bound in goatskin and tooled in gold 20.2 x 26.8cm Pierpont Morgan Library, New York 7 Venus Disarming Amor, c. 1715–16
ntoine Watteau (c. 1684–1721) Oil on canvas, 47338cm, Musée Condé, Chantilly
8 A Family Group in a Landscape, 1647
Gonzales Coques (1614/8–84), Oil on canvas, 118375.4cm Wallace Collection, London feature jean de jullienne
Cabinet it was combined with works by van Mieris, Rubens, Terborch (1617–81) and de Wit (1616–89), anchoring Watteau firmly in a Netherlandish tradition. The only Italian work, then attributed to Parmigianino, was hung as a pendant, highlighting Watteau as the new painter of grace, as the Italian was seen at the time.
Many of the Old Master paintings in Jullienne’s collection can be linked to his preferences for older art, which Watteau’s paintings reflected. Gonzales Cocques’s family portrait of 1647 (Fig. 8), for example, would have reminded Jullienne of Watteau’s fêtes galantes. Figures, their relationship to the landscape, and the importance of conversation would have chimed with recent French works. Paintings by Teniers (1610–90) and by the Dutch genre painters were consistently seen as close parallels to Watteau’s fêtes galantes by 18th-century writers and collectors.
Jullienne the collector was necessarily informed and influenced by the artistic situation in Paris at Watteau’s time. Many of Jullienne’s choices and judgements stem from the artist’s lifetime – and possibly even from Watteau himself. The collection that he amassed is a forceful reminder that, in 18th-century Paris, contemporary art was seen as a branch of a long and international tradition – a view to which Watteau would have immediately subscribed. The art of Watteau and his generation also changed the way in which Old Master painting was perceived. Both men emanated from a much wider network of artists, collectors, art officials and amateurs sharing interests and values. Watteau and Jullienne actively shaped opinions in this wider artistic climate, and this impressive exhibition reveals the way in which their relationship contextualised 18th-century French painting both at the time and today – even though, despite apparent evidence to the contrary, the artist and his collector may never have been that close. o
Christoph Martin Vogtherr is Curator of Pictures pre-1800 at the Wallace Collection, London. ‘Esprit et Vérité: Watteau and His Circle’ opens at the Wallace Collection, London, on 12 March. For information on visiting, go to www.wallacecollection.org
1 / Dacier, Emile and Albert Vuaflart, Jean de Jullienne et les graveurs de Watteau au XVIIe siècle, 4 vols., Paris 1921/1929. Marie-Catherine Sahut and Florence Raymond, Antoine Watteau et l’art de l’estampe, exh. cat., Musée du Louvre, Paris, 2010. 2 / An accompanying publication discusses Watteau’s works in the museum in more detail: Christoph Martin Vogtherr, Watteau at the Wallace Collection, exh. cat., Wallace Collection, London, 2011. 3 / Christoph Martin Vogtherr and Jennifer Tonkovich, Jean de Jullienne. Collector & Connoisseur, exh. cat., Wallace Collection, London, 2011 (hereafter referred to as Jean de Jullienne, 2011). Isabelle Tillerot’s recent monograph has provided an important basis for the catalogue: Isabelle Tillerot, Jean de Jullienne et les collectionneurs de son temps. Un regard singulier sur le tableau, Paris, 2011. 4 / Dominique Brême, François de Troy, Paris 1997, pp. 172–175, 192, no. 55; Christoph Martin Vogtherr and Jennifer Tonkovich, Jean de Jullienne, 2011, cat. no. 1. 5/ Musée Condé, inv. no. portraits dessinés 477, trois crayons, 23.8x20cm. 6/ Object file at the Musée Condé, Chantilly. 7 / Christoph Martin Vogtherr and Jennifer Tonkovich, Jean de Jullienne, 2011, cat. no. 25.
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