PART ONE: NAME THAT HAT
DECEMBER 22, 2006 THE CATHOLIC HERALD
Send your answers, marked ʻChristmastide Quizʼ to us at the address on Page 11 of the main paper. Answers in our January 5 issue
Since he was elected, Pope Benedict has been pictured in an astonishing array of hats. But do you know what they are called? Match the name to the photograph. 1) the Roman galero; 2) the camauro; 3) Spanish Guardia Civil cap; 4) Italyʼs Alpine regiment cap; 5) baseball cap; 6) Panama
PART TWO: THE YEAR THAT WAS
Answer the following multiple-choice questions:
1. January: Which British actor was cast to play the role of Lord Longford in a Channel Four drama?
A. Jim Broadbent B. Ray Winstone C. Ian Holm
2. February: Which European leader caused controversy by comparing himself to Jesus Christ?
A. Vladimir Putin B. Tony Blair C. Silvio Berlusconi
3. March: Which rock star, known as the ʻpope of mopeʼ, admitted that he was becoming “increasingly Catholic”?
A. Morrissey B. Leonard Cohen C. Nick Cave
4. April: Paris Hilton was rumoured to be in the running to play who in a forthcoming biopic?
A. Princess Diana B. Mother Teresa C. Florence Nightingale
5. May: Pope Benedict blessed a fleet of which Italian sports car?
A. Alfa Romeo B. Ferrari C. Lamborghini
7. July: Which Catholic MP started a campaign against “lads mags”?
A. Ann Widdecombe B. Claire Curtis Thomas C. David Amess
8. August:A German scientist claimed an excessive use of what during Mass surpassed European safety limits?
A. Candles B. Wine C. Incense
9. September: How much did a popemobile used by John Paul II on his visit to Scotland in 1982 sell at auction for?
A. £37,000 B. £78,500 C. £120,000
10. October: Which BBC news presenter was advised to remove a cross worn during a broadcast?
A. Fiona Bruce B. Sophie Rayworth C. Huw Edwards
11. November:A painting worth £50m, depicting Jesus calling the Apostles Andrew and Simon, was discovered at Hampton Court. Who painted it?
A. Rembrandt B. Vemeer C. Caravaggio
6. June: Football star Kaka played in the World Cup with the phrase, “I belong to Jesus” stitched on to his boots. Which country does he represent?
A. Brazil B. Paraguay C. Argentina
12. December: For a fee, a Portugese businessman offered to do what for sick believers?
A. Receive Communion B. Go on pilgrimage C. Go to Confession
PART THREE: HE SAID WHAT?
Match the person to the quotation A.Archbishop Nichols B. Pope Benedict XVI C. Mel Gibson D. Cardinal Murphy-OʼConnor E. Fr Sean Breen F. Sister Wendy Beckett
1. “Updating sacred music is possible but this cannot happen unless it follows the tradition of Gregorian chants”
2. “Those who are elected to fashion our laws are not elected to be our moral tutors”
3.”People find prayer hard because itʼs so simple, so painfully simple”
4.”I acted like a person completely out of control and said things that I do not believe to be true”
5. “Madonna clearly has issues from her childhood concerning religion which still need to be worked through”
6. “Iʼm a small gambler. You canʼt beat the book makers”
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PART FOUR: FILM BUFFS
Match the film with the comments made by our reviewers:
1. “The result is a Dickensian number of interrelated plot strands all squished into two troubling hours”
2. “The shooting of an entire family with a shotgun is clearly wrong whoever you are”
3. “When something takes itself as seriously as this, even if it is good, my instinct is to recoil”
4. “The perfect test for a bio
graphical film is to see its effects on a mind unpolluted by knowledge of its subject”
5. “The young gang leader is an absolute baddy with no scruples or remorse”
A. Walk the Line B. Syriana C. Goodnight and Good Luck D. Capote E. Tsotsi
Think of a caption for this picture of Pope Benedict XVI and Orthodox Archbishop Christodoulos signing a joint declaration at t he Vatican
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www.ewtn.com THE CATHOLIC HERALD DECEMBER 22, 2006
Long day’s journey into holy night
Three wise men came from the East... but who were they? Sandra Miesel considers what the Magi have meant to Christians across the ages
The Wise Men –not yet called kings – make only a single appearance in Holy Scripture. St Matthew’s Gospel (Mt 2:112) tells of their arrival in Jerusalem shortly after the birth of Jesus. They have come seeking the newborn King of the Jews because they had seen his star rise in the East. Herod, the current ruler, knows nothing of an upstart princeling but learns that prophecies place him in Bethlehem. Herod directs the Wise Men to search there for the Child and keep him informed. Following their star, the Wise Men find Jesus with his Mother. They worship him and bestow gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Warned by an angel, they do not reveal the Child’s location to jealous Herod but return secretly to their own land. In ancient texts of
Scripture the Wise Men are Magoi in Greek and Magi in Latin. The singular form, Magos / Magus , is the source of our English word “magician” but had multiple meanings in biblical times. A magus could be a Zoroastrian priest from Persia, an occultist, a magician, or a charlatan. Because the New Testament Magi study the stars, their mystic wisdom presumably includes astrology. Hence some recent Bible translations call them “astrologers”, a less evocative term than the more traditional “Wise Men”. Some early Christians equated the Magi with Chaldean star-readers from Babylon, masters of the occult familiar throughout the Roman Empire. St Justin Martyr and Tertullian thought they were Arabians, but most believers in Patristic times took their Persian origin for granted.
The Church Fathers were quick to see deeper symbolism in this curious episode, first through its Old Testament parallels. Origen suggested that the Magi were descendants of the pagan prophet Balaam, who had predicted that “a star shall rise out of Jacob” (Numbers 24:17). Other Old Testament figures, including the priestking Melchizedek (Genesis 14:18-20), the generous Queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10), and the faithful Three Young Men in the Fiery Furnace (Daniel 3), were also seen as counterparts of the Wise Men from the East. Strangers who worship the new King of Judah and bring gifts fulfil Messianic prophecies. “The kings of Tarshish and the Isles shall offer gifts; the kings of Arabia and Seba shall bring tribute,” (Psalm 72:10). “All they from Sheba shall come, bearing gold and frankincense, and proclaiming the praises of the Lord,” ( Isaiah 60:6) Because the Scriptures speak of tributary kings, Tertullian called the Magi kings. Origen specified that they numbered three to match their gifts and their named kingdoms. St John Chrysostom preached about 12 Wise Men but his interpretation failed to find favour. These foreigners, the first Gentiles to see the Light, recognise what Herod and the Temple priesthood cannot: the newborn Saviour. The wealthy, learned, alien Magi of St Matthew’s Gospel complement the poor ignorant, local shepherds of St Luke’s Gospel. Foreshadowing the universality of the Church, these Gentiles and Jews worship God Incarnate to show that salvation is offered to all men. St Irenaeus of Lyons was the first Church Father to equate the Wise Men’s gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh with Christ’s roles as King, God, and Sacrifice. This became the dominant reading, still familiar through the beautiful Victorian Christmas carol “We Three Kings of Orient Are”. But
other interpretations also appeared in which the gifts stand for the virtues of faith, chastity, and purity of heart or else for almsgiving, prayer, and mortification. The Christ Child’s adoration by the Magi is known as
There are inconsistencies about which Magus is which, but in Germanic lands Caspar is elderly, Melchior middle-aged and Balthasar is young
his Epiphany (“Manifestation”) because it announces his mission to redeem the world. Ancient Christendom spoke of multiple manifestations (initially including the Nativity) by linking the revelation of the newborn Christ with his later baptism in the Jordan and his first miracle at Cana. These key points in his mission, which were imagined to have occurred on the same calendar date, also used to be celebrated in the pre-Vatican II Roman breviary. As an Epiphany antiphon at Vespers proclaims: “We honour the holy day adorned with three miracles: today the star led the Magi to the crib: today wine was made from water for a wedding: today Christ willed to be baptised by John in the Jordan.” In medieval Europe, Epiphany was often connected with the miracle of the loaves and fishes and with the raising of Lazarus. The traditional date of Epiphany is January 6, although in some places, including the United States and Britain, the feast has now been transferred to the nearest Sunday. Epiphany is an older feast than Christmas for it is attested in the East from the first half of the third
century, at least 75 years before Christmas is mentioned as a holy day in Rome. By the late fourth century Christmas was also being celebrated in the East, so Epiphany lost its Nativity connection there. The Baptism of the Lord became the chief focus of Epiphany and the subject of its special feast-day icon. The public manifestation of Christ as the Divine “beloved Son” outranked the private homage of the Magi, who were relegated to the background of Nativity icons. Nevertheless, the Adoration of the Magi has been a popular subject for artists since late antiquity. The earliest surviving examples are catacomb paintings from the second and third centuries and carvings on stone coffins from the first half of the fourth century. On the coffins, three nearly identical Magi process toward the enthroned Madonna and Child. Their gifts allude to the alms the deceased person had given in his lifetime. Famous mosaics depicting the Magi also appear in the churches of St Maria Maggiore in Rome (440 AD) and St Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna (561 AD). The Magi are represented in exotic “Eastern” garb, wearing tunics, leggings, and soft peaked caps. They observe imperial Roman court etiquette by presenting their gifts with covered hands or on trays. The gold is often in the form of a royal wreath and the star appears as an emblem of divine kingship. By the 10th century western artists are portraying the Wise Men with crowns. They grow distinguishable because they have come to stand for the three ages of man, the three known continents of the Old World, and three races descended from the sons of Noah. In later medieval art the Magi lay aside their crowns to interact with the Christ Child and receive his blessing. Their garments become increasingly fantastic and their faces are often modelled on contemporary rulers. By the
The joy of the Magi in a school nativity play
14th century, the youngest Magus is portrayed as a black African in many Northern European paintings. In subsequent centuries, other racial types joined the trio, including East Indians, Asians, Incas, and Canadian Indians, so that the Wise Men could represent all nations. The 13th-century Golden Legend gives the Magi’s names in Greek as Apellius, Amerius, and Damascus; in Hebrew as Galgalat, Malgalat and Serchin; and in Latin as Caspar, Balthasar and Melchior –the favourite set. There are inconsistencies about which Magus is which but in Germanic lands, Caspar (gold) is elderly, Melchior (frankincense) is middle-aged and Balthasar (myrrh) is young. The gifts are presented in order of age. The centre of the Magi’s cult is Cologne. The cathedral there boasts a splendid
golden shrine holding their relics that has drawn swarms of pilgrims since the 12th century. The Kings’ protection is traditionally invoked against travel dangers, plague, fever, and sudden death. Their initials C+M+B form a protective acronym for Christus mundum benedicat (“Christ blesses the world”). The faithful carry this symbol on holy cards or chalk it over their doors to ward off evil. The alleged remains of the Magi are claimed to have been discovered in the East by St Helena and brought to Milan in 400 AD, whence they were looted by Frederick Barbarossa in 1162 and given to Cologne. Historian Patrick Geary has argued persuasively that Milan never had any relics of the Wise Men. Yet the bones in the shrine were wrapped in genuine purple silk from St Helena’s
lifetime, so some ancient parties unknown have been passing as the Magi for eight centuries. Regardless of authenticity, the Three Holy Kings have had great cultural impact on Cologne as the city’s male patron saints. Their crowns appear on the arms and banner of the city as well as on the seals of her archbishop and university. The Magi themselves bear heraldic arms. Caspar’s are a golden star and crescent on a blue field; Melchior’s six gold stars on a blue field, and Balthasar’s a red-clad Moor holding a lance with pennant on a golden field. Thus Scripture and legend have combined to honour the Wise Men of the East as universal symbols of mankind adoring God Incarnate. May these first pilgrims who traveled by the light of a star “guide us to the Perfect Light”.
ST. MARY’S THE HIDDEN GEM MULBERRY STREET MANCHESTER M2 6LN Wednesday 20th December POLICE (‘A’ DIVISION) CAROL SERVICE With Band Accompaniment 7.30 pm (ends 8.15 pm approx.) ALL ARE WELCOME Saturday, 23rd December: Mass Lunchtime 12 noon and (First Mass of Sunday) 5.15 pm. Christmas Confessions: 10.45 am till 11.45 and 2:00 pm till 3:00 pm. Sunday, 24th December: Forth Sunday of Advent: Mass 10:15 am and 12 noon CHRISTMAS EVE: Sunday, 24th December: 11.30 PM: CAROLS AND BLESSING OF THE CRIB, FOLLOWED BYMIDNIGHT MASS (FIRST MASS OF CHRISTMAS DAY) . CHRISTMAS DAY, Monday, 25th December: Mass 10.15 am and 12 Noon. THERE WILL BE NO EVENING MASS.