disbursed on projects that often seemed outlandish – such as a plan to attach incendiary devices to bats in the hope that they would nest in the eaves of German homes (in fact they fell like hailstones from the planes that released them). A lifelong foe was FBI director J Edgar Hoover, who aspired to lead the nation’s spies himself. After Donovan’s daughter died in a car crash, Hoover repeatedly insinuated that Donovan was having an affair with his own daughter-in-law. When Donovan died due to complications from Alzheimer’s disease, Hoover tried to blame his death on syphilis. Waller’s deeply researched book contains much fascinating material on Donovan himself, although it is not in the same class as Richard Harris Smith’s classic history of the OSS. It contains some marvellous stories about the practicalities of spying. My favourites include that of ‘Cynthia’, the nom de guerre of Amy Elizabeth Thorpe Pack, a sex bomb who ostentatiously copulated with a diplomat in the cor r idor of the Vichy embassy in Washington, DC in order to distract the nightwatchman while a gentleman called the ‘Georgia Cracker’ burgled the s a f e s . A Spanish-speaking s tudent ca l l ed El l a befriended a secretary in Franco’s US embassy, fixing her up with a (phoney) better paid job with IT&T so that Ella could replace her in the embassy. There Ella damaged a safe’s combination lock with a blow from a hammer, which enabled one ‘Sadie’ Cohen to repair it, and return one night to copy the contents of several code books.
quasi-paramilitary functions that proved a mixed legacy for the CIA. OSS agents were dropped into occupied Europe to arm and organise resistance groups. A single mistake in the way a shirt button was sewn on, or in the printing of identity papers, could result in the type of five-day interrogation with rubber clubs that one agent experienced at the hands of the Gestapo (three weeks later the victim had the satisfaction of seizing a gun from a guard and shooting dead the two Germans involved when he encountered them in a US holding centre). Donovan himself was not averse to a gunfight: against all orders, and despite being a heavyset man of sixty with heart trouble, he invar iably smuggled himself onto invading landing craft. On one occasion he ended up in a firefight with an Italian patrol at Salerno, which left him feeling ‘happy as clam’ after he had killed them all.
Perhaps as interesting as Donovan’s derring-do is the evidence Waller provides for the chilling of the OSS’s relationship with Soviet intelligence, on which he was already preparing to spy by December 1944 (just as the NKVD had long been spying on the US). There are also interesting sections on Donovan’s reversion to the role of prosecutor during the Nuremberg Trials, and on the reasons – mainly fiscal – why Harry Truman pulled the plug on this ‘American Gestapo’.
Donovan was shunted off to the US embassy in Thailand, where he endeavoured, typically, to take over intelligence operations throughout Southeast Asia. In 1947 Truman discovered that the US needed an intelligence ser vice a f ter a l l , and the CIA was created. Following an uncertain period in which two military men, Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter and General Walter Bedell Smith, ran the CIA, it reverted to such old OSS hands as Allen Dulles and his successors.
By 1957, it was clear that something was wrong with ‘Wild Bill’ (beyond his old habit of threatening to tear opponents to pieces before throwing them out of the window). A beloved granddaughter died after accidentally drinking silver polish before a New Year party, and his daughter-in-law Mary took a lethal overdose of barbiturates. That year the
Donovan’s activities became so widespread that it is difficult to decide which of them were really vital to the Allied war effort. Keeping certain states neutral was an important part of the job, as was intelligence gathering in centres of diplomatic tittle-tattle such as the Vatican. Allen Dulles, his steely subordinate (and the third CIA director), ran a tight ship in Bern, recruiting a German Foreign Ministry agent who delivered high-grade intelligence materials on his regular tr ips to Switzerland. Dulles was also instrumental in Operation Sunr ise, which resulted in SS General Karl Wolff ’s surrender of German forces in northern Italy. There can be little doubt that agents recruited by the OSS to count trains pa s s i ng t h rough marshalling yards and to identify the insignia of German troops in bars and nightclubs played a crucial role i n Al l i ed d i s pos i t i ons . Unlike in Br itain, where SIS and SOE were carefull y de l i neated, t he OSS combined intelligence collection and analysis with
MA in biography Consistently rated ‘excellent’ by external examiners and inspectors The course is taught by Jane Ridley and will be based in London from
October 2011. Available full-time (12 months) or part-time,
by research or as a taught MA. Start October or January. For more information visit our site www.buckingham.ac.uk/london/biography or email firstname.lastname@example.org
74-year-old major-general was consigned to Walter Reed Army Medical Center. He died there in 1959 and was bur ied in Arlington Cemetery. In 1981 William Casey, another former OSS agent turned CIA Director, unveiled the bronze statue of Wild Bill that watches over the foyer in the Agency’s Langley headquarters as bureaucrats with few of Wild Bill’s epic qualities go about their business. ❑
LITERARY REVIEW April 2011