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THE NEW INTERNATIONALIST workers' co-operative (NI) exists to report on the issues of world poverty and inequality; to focus attention on the unjust relationship between the powerful and powerless worldwide; to debate and campaign for the radical changes necessary to meet the basic needs of all; and to bring to life the people, the ideas and the action in the fight for global justice. The New Internationalist (NI) magazine was founded by Peter and Lesley Adamson in 1970. Together with a range of other publications it is published by New Internationalist Publications Ltd which is wholly owned by the New Internationalist Trust and co-operatively managed: Accounts: Anne Maxfield. Administration: Anna Weston. Design: Alan Hughes, Andrew Kokotka, Ian Nixon. Distribution and fulfilment: Jo Lateu. Editorial: Katharine Ainger, Vanessa Baird, Chris Brazier, Dinyar Godrej, Adam Ma’anit, David Ransom. Editorial (North America): Wayne Ellwood, Richard Swift. Editorial (Australasia): Chris Richards. Magazine marketing: Amanda Synnott, Michael York. Production: Fran Harvey. Publications editor: Troth Wells. Publications marketing: Dan Raymond-Barker. Sales and circulation: James Rowland. Please write to your subscription office with full details including (if possible) your subscription number shown on the magazine address label. Please inform us of any change of address. SUBSCRIPTION OFFICES AND ANNUAL PRICES EMAIL: Australia: firstname.lastname@example.org NZ/Aotearoa: email@example.com North America: firstname.lastname@example.org UK/Rest of World: email@example.com UK: Tower House, Lathkill St, Market Harborough, LE16 9EF. Tel: 01858 438896. Fax: 01858 461739. Individuals £32.85 p.a.; £8.85 qtly. Institutions £55. Unwaged £20 (please telephone for further information). CANADA: PO Box 819, Markham, ON L3P 8A2. Tel: 1 800 661-8700 Fax: 905 946-0410 Individuals 1 yr – $44.00 (plus GST or HST); Overseas (by air) 1 yr – $70. GST 121784854. UNITED STATES: US Periodicals Postage Rates paid at Niagara Falls, NY 14304 US. Ofﬁce of publication, 2424 Niagara Falls Blvd, PO Box 1062, Niagara Falls, NY 14304-1062. US Postmaster send address corrections to: NI Magazine, Box 1062 Niagara Falls, NY 14304-1062 Tel: 1 800 661 8700. Fax: 905 946 0410. Individuals 1 yr – $44.00; Overseas (by air) 1 yr – $70. AUSTRALIA AND PNG: 28 Austin Street, Adelaide, S.A., 5000. Tel: 08 8232 1563 Fax: 08 8232 1887. Individuals (Australia) A$78.00 (incl. GST); Institutions A$95.40 (incl. GST); Student/Unwaged A$39.00 (incl. GST). All overseas subscriptions (air mail only) A$87.60; Binders A$12.00 (incl. GST). NEW ZEALAND/AOTEAROA: PO Box 35038, Shirley, Christchurch. Tel/fax: +64 3 386 3153 Individuals $64; Institutions $72; Student/unwaged $54 (includes GST). South Pacific $75; Rest of the World $81 (GST exclusive). REST OF THE WORLD: Tower House, Lathkill St, Market Harborough, LE16 9EF, UK. Tel: +44 1858 438896. Fax: +44 1858 461739. Individuals: 1 year: £37.85, h58, (h47 delivery in Ireland), SA Rand 200, US$68. Institutions £60 p.a. Despatch by air only. EDITORIAL OFFICES: UK: 55 Rectory Road, Oxford OX4 1BW. Tel: +44 (0)1865 811400. Fax: +44 (0)1865 793152. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Advertising: Tel/Fax: + 44 (0) 1372 276233. Email: email@example.com www.terrylockmediasales.co.uk IRISH REPUBLIC (MARKETING OFFICE): P.O.BOX 8115, Dublin 15 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: CallSave 1850 924 331 CANADA/US: 401 Richmond Street West, Studio 393, Toronto, Ontario M5V 3A8. Tel: 416 588 6478. Fax: 416 588 4285. Email: email@example.com Advertising: Michael Wile. Tel: 416-531-1483. Fax: 416-531-1612. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org AUSTRALASIA: Tel: +61 (0)412 12 0400 Email: email@example.com PERMISSIONS: Australasia: Australian Subscription Office. UK/Rest of the World: Anna Weston, NI UK Editorial Office. Tel: +44 (0)1865 811400. Fax: +44 (0)1865 793152. Canada/US: Toronto Editorial Office. Member of Cancopy. Reproduction of all material in NI, excluding photographs, is free to primary and secondary schools. PRINT: Printed on recycled paper by Warners Midlands plc, UK. NEWS TRADE DISTRIBUTOR: COMAG Specialist Division, Tavistock Works, Tavistock Road, West Drayton, Middlesex UB7 7QX, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1895 433800. Fax: +44 (0)1895 433801. NORTH AMERICA: Publications Mail Agreement number 40063336. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to Circulation Department, NI Magazine, PO Box 819, Markham, ON L3P 8A2. US periodicals postage paid at Niagara Falls, NY (USPS 329770). US office of publication: 2424 Niagara Falls Blvd., Niagara Falls, NY 14304-5709. US postmaster: send address changes to NI Magazine, PO Box 1062, Niagara Falls, NY 14304. Indexing: Indexed in the Canadian Periodical Index, CPI CD-ROM, CPI Online, the Canadian Index, Canadian Business and Current Affairs, and the Alternative Press Index. Available in fulltext electronic format from EBSCO Publishing and Micromedia.
The New Internationalist is published monthly except that the January and February issues are combined into one bumper issue.
The Independent News Collective is a UK association of radical and alternative publishers. INK publications cover issues of social, political and personal change, issues which are often neglected by the mainstream media. INK enables its members to cooperate on distribution, marketing and publicity. New Internationalist Magazine is an INK member.
Home of the mad mullahs, a President you can frighten your
children with and nuclear weapons on the drawing board, if not actually in their bunkers: Iran sends shivers down Washington spines better than any other member of the ‘Axis of Evil’. Are these Western stereotypes shameless attempts to prepare the ground for yet another war? Do they have any foundation in reality? The NI looks at Iran’s rich history and culture, at human rights in a theocratic state and, above all, at what life is really like for ordinary Iranians. ◆ Signed with an X – A diary of a day spent going door to door campaigning for women’s rights in Tehran. ◆ View from the slums – President Ahmadinejad won power through his promises to the poor. Do people in the impoverished areas to the south of Tehran think he is delivering? And do they support his religious clampdown? ◆ Iranian blogosphere – Persian is now the fourth most popular online language and blogs have proliferated like wildﬁre over the last few years. The regime is now clamping down on free speech – but is it just postponing the moment when the dam will burst? ◆ A brief history of Persia/Iran – from Cyrus the Great and the Shahs to Khomeini and Ahmadinejad. Plus the facts about Iran’s peculiar political system with its unique blend of theocracy and democracy.
COT TO N • V I S I O N 400
Violence is NOT the only option
The Master's Program in Coexistence and Conflict at Brandeis University (near Boston, USA), is unique in combining the best in theory with policy and practice skills, to help prevent, manage, and resolve intercommunal and international conflicts.
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From this month’s editor
Timeless. That’s the kind of topic you want if you’re an editor here. Something that
stays put, like still life. You see, we plan well ahead. We are semi-detached from news values. We have long ‘lead-in’ times. ‘Imagine how your story will read in six months,’ I tell bemused contributors. No better topic, then, than the timeless Ocean. Or so I thought. And of course I was wrong. Why, even as I write, my attention is drawn to a newspaper headline: ‘Climate Change is Killing the Ocean’s Lungs!’ Something deeply disturbing really is brewing down there in the deep, out there over the horizon. Until quite recently, people like me were ignorant of this. Ignorance breeds panic – two sides of the same pretty worthless coin. So the most valuable discovery for me was of my own ignorance, and the wonders I had been ignoring. I owe a deeper debt of gratitude than usual to two people for making this discovery worthwhile: Professor Dorrik Stow at the Southampton Oceanography Institute, and Sara Holden at Greenpeace International. The NI usually takes care not to identify with any other organization. But on this occasion I felt – well blow that! Scruples be damned! If this magazine encourages you to join Greenpeace’s Ocean Defenders campaign, then it will have had some effect. Action is what’s needed most – and fast.
©GREENPEACE / GAVIN NEWMAN
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State of the world’s Ocean
David Ransom for the New Internationalist Co-operative
2 Planet Ocean
20 What people are doing to the Ocean – THE FACTS 22 The tempest
Mahfuz Sadique reports from the Bay of Bengal, where the land is sinking, the sea is rising and storms terrorize coastal communities. PLUS: An illustrated guide to Plate Tectonics.
9 Lost at sea
Life on board for seafarers sometimes resembles slavery. Martin Whitfield tells their stories. PLUS: An illustrated guide to Ocean Life. In pictures: women and a fishing community in Guinea, West Africa. Greenpeace Ocean Defenders blog direct from the brutal kill in the Southern Ocean. PLUS: Sea quotes and an illustrated guide to Ocean Resources.
25 Waterworld If National Parks are
14 Death and the whale
commonplace on land, argues Sara Holden, why not marine reserves at sea? PLUS: An illustrated guide to Marine Reserves.
A very brief briefing.
28 Currents + Big Bad World 31 Worldbeaters 32 Southern Exposure 33 View from Delhi 34 NI Jumbo Prize Crossword 35 Best of 2006’s music, books and films 36 Mixed Media 38 Letters 39 Letter from Mauritius 40 Country Profile – Honduras
Front cover photo: ©Greenpeace/Danny Ocampo. Magazine designed by Alan Hughes. All monetary values are expressed in US dollars unless otherwise noted.
Red tides, jelly-fish plagues, explosions of primitive organisms. Kenneth R Weiss reports on evolution in reverse. PLUS: An illustrated guide to Ocean Currents.
6 The rise of slime
David Ransom discovers there’s just one Ocean, and it’s not looking good. PLUS: An illustrated guide to The Deep Ocean.
17 Climate control
The Ocean is a like a giant thermostat and sponge. Dorrick Stow explains. PLUS: An illustrated guide to Ocean Elements.